Gram-negative Bacterial Infections
In the United States, it has been estimated that as many as one hospital patient in ten acquires a nosocomial infection (an infection acquired in the hospital), or up to 2 million patients a year. Estimates of the annual treatment costs for these infections range from $4.5 billion to $11 billion and up. Nosocomial infections contributed to almost 100,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2002. The most common nosocomial infections are of the urinary tract (UTI), surgical site and various pneumonias.
Given the increasing danger posed by
infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria,
Cubist is proud to be a pioneer in developing
potential new treatments.
In the US in 2003, Gram-negative bacilli were associated with many of the most frequent types of hospital-acquired infections, including 71% of urinary tract infections, 65% of pneumonia episodes, 34% of surgical site infections, and 24% of bloodstream infections. Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are an even higher percentage of nosocomial infections in Europe.
Research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in December 2009 found a "worrisome shift toward infections that are due to Gram-negative pathogens" in an international study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units. In this international study, Gram-negative bacteria were present in 62% of positive microbial isolates, surpassing Gram-positive bacteria at 47%.
The types and prevalence of nosocomial infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria in the U.S. changed in the late 1980s, with a decrease in the contributions made by E. coli and K. pneumonia and an increase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The most common Gram-negative organism isolated from all sites between 1989 - 1998 was P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa was responsible for 16.1% of all cases of nosocomial pneumonia. More recently (publications in 2006, 2008) the reported incidence in nosocomial pneumonia has ranged from 11 to 19% in the U.S. In cUTI and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) the incidence of P. aeruginosa varies by geography and institution, but literature citations in recent years of 10% or more are not uncommon.